Hash#reject regression in Ruby 2.1.1

In Ruby 2.1.0 or earlier, the reject method in any class that inherits Hash returns an object of its own class. However, in Ruby 2.1.1 this behavior has changed accidentally to return a plain Hash object, not of the inherited class.

class SubHash < Hash; end
p SubHash.new.reject{}.class #=> 2.1.0: SubHash 2.1.1: Hash
p Hash.new.reject{}.class #=> 2.1.0: Hash 2.1.1: Hash

(To be exact, extra states such as instance variables, etc aren't copied either. With the release of Ruby 2.1.0 we've changed our version policy, so 2.1.1 shouldn't include such behavior change. )

This regression could potentially affect many libraries, one such case is Rails' HashWithIndifferentAccess and OrderedHash. They are broken; as the reject method now returns a plain Hash instead of HashWithIndifferentAccess or OrderedHash. https://github.com/rails/rails/issues/14188

Why is this happened

Firstly, this is not an expected change. It's an accident due to one missing backport commit into 2.1.1.

This behavior change was originally discussed in bugs.r-l.o#9223. However, it had been rejected for the release of 2.1.0 because it was too late. So, this change was rescheduled for Ruby 2.2.0, with a deprecation warning added to 2.1.0.

Commits around this change are described here, read the following gist for more detail: https://gist.github.com/sorah/9265008

Ruby 2.1.0 contains a constant in C to switch Hash#reject behavior by using #ifdef. Hash#reject will return a plain Hash by setting this C constant to 0. When this constant is set to 1, Hash#reject will return the object of its class with any extra states.

After checking out the 2.1 branch, the revision 44358 changed this constant name, and was backported to the 2.1 branch. However, this commit had leaked one line which changed the constant name. This leak is fixed in revision 44370, but this was not included in the backport to the 2.1 branch. Yes, this is reason of the regression.


So I recommend to build a patched Ruby 2.1.1 with revision 44370 or add this monkey patch to your application: https://github.com/rails/rails/pull/14198/files

As of now, revision 44370 is backported to the 2.1 branch, so this accidental behavior change will be fixed when Ruby 2.1.2 is released. https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/9576

As I wrote above, this behavior change is still scheduled for the release of Ruby 2.2.0. I recommend to fix your code to in order to expect this behavior change. One option is to re-define the reject method to your class like Rails pull#14198 does.

(This article is translation of my Japanese blog with request and help from zzak <3. Thank you for proofreading, zzak!: http://diary.sorah.jp/2014/02/28/ruby211-hash-reject)

Published at 2014-03-10 13:50:01 +0000 | Permalink

render_to_string doesn't work well in ActionController::Live

render_to_string doesn't work well in ActionController::Live.

Because render_to_string modifies response_body and restores it. But #response_body= regenerates response.stream and ActionController::Live's overridden #response_body= closes response.stream, so response.stream.write won't work after any render_to_string in ActionController::Live.

def render_to_string(*)
  orig_stream = response.stream
  if orig_stream
    response.instance_variable_set(:@stream, orig_stream)

Above code works well as monkey patch to fix this issue.

I requested to pull this to upstream: https://github.com/rails/rails/pull/11623

Published at 2013-07-28 00:54:55 +0000 | Permalink

Class Variables and Instance Variables on Class, in Ruby

Do you know problems around class variables in Ruby?

Class variable

You can declare class variables by using @@ for prefix of variable name, for instance: @@foo.


But, class variables can easily overwrite by subclasses. This is based on Ruby specification; class variables can be shared on its subclass.

Class variables are similar with global variables. They're too hard to handle safely.

For usually cases, I can't recommend to use.

Declare Instance Variable on Class object

So then, how we define "class variable," safely?

In Ruby, classes are object. This means you can define instance variable on class.

Scope of instance variables on class are closed within the same class. Thus, they don't effect on subclasses.

(Of course you can use attr_accessor, attr_reader, attr_writer. Example code)

Using from instance

Here are how to use that variables from instance objects.

Use attr_accessor

The simple solution.

Use instance_variable_get

but if you wanted to protect from foreigns, you can use instance_variable_get and private method.

Published at 2013-01-29 02:29:02 +0000 | Permalink